The Industrial Revolution (18-19th Century) Industrial Revolution 18th to 19th century the economic developments of the 1800s saw the developments of agrarian and handicraft economies in Europe and America transform into industrial urbanized ones.
The term to describe this phenomenon would be known as the “Industrial Revolution”, and was first used by French writers, but made popular by English economic historian Arnold Toynbee. The Industrial Revolution was underpinned by the Agricultural Revolution.
From the mid 18th century to the mid 19th century agricultural production increased significantly. The huge increase in food output supported the expansion, and sustained a large population and boosted trade.
The increased use of machines over human or animal power in farming also meant that less farm workers were needed, and they could leave the land to industrial towns. Better metals and richer fuel also contributed to industrialization by creating the steam engine, an integral machine toindustrialization, which powered factories, locomotives and ships.
The new steam engines used coal and iro, both in the construction and as fuel treatingdem and for these resources. Roads, canals, and roadways changed Britain dramatically, connecting Britain andallowing goods to be sent over longdistances.
Visually, the revolution wasclear in the new industrial towns, with smoking factories dominating the skylinethe. The cities were horrible to live in. Overcrowded, dirty with dangerous conditions in the factories and strictrules and punishments.
The Industrial Revolution saw mechanization of the industry, which was previously manufactured in the home, creating the term “cottage industry”.
Now, production could be increased on a largescale because of new inventions such asthe spinning mule and the power loom. Theiron industry developed with HenryBessemer Xin expensive process for massproducing steel iron and steel were keymaterials for constructing the tools andmachinery steam engines and ships needed for the industrial progress .
Industrial labor opportunities drew people to thecities from the countryside to such anextent that's in 1750 only15% of the population of Britain livedin towns by 1850 over 50% of the entire population of Great Britain lived ineither a town or a city, and by 1900 it was 85 percent.
London had 4.5 millionpeople Glasgow 760 thousand Liverpool 685,000 and Manchester and Birmingham 500,000 Great Britain was the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution and was theonly mature industrial economy for along time.
Historians have speculated that this wasbecause as an island there was relativepeace and stability for Britain comparedto mainland Europe.
Rather than spendingon a large defensive standing army, capital could be spent on other ventures, and there was confidence for investors. Native resources were also abundant and readily available for initial technological developments and ivensions.
Engineers and inventors were also respected and encouraged in British society, and were backed by wealthy patrons.
A powerful navy and an empire bringing in vast wealth from its colonies also contributed to the catalyst for industrialization before others. Nevertheless Germany, France, Switzerland , Belgium, and the United States soon emulated Britain's industrial change; and by 1900 Britainwould no longer be at the top, with the United States as the world's leadingindustrial nation in the 20th century.
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