Chronology of Chinese History in ten minutesCirca 2500 BC, Battle of Zhuolu2697 BC, Yellow Emperor (Huangdi)Circa 2070 BC, Xia DynastyFounder: QiCirca 1900 BC, Tai Kang lost his regime and was succeeded by Hou YiCirca 1559 BC, Battle of MingtiaoCirca 1600 BC, Shang DynastyFounder: Tang1046 BC, Battle of Muye, The victory of Wu Wang led to the Shang being replacedCirca 1046 BC, Western Zhou DynastyFounder: Wu Wang841 BC, Gonghe Regency770 BC, Spring and Autumn period722 BC, Spring and Autumn Annals began in this year.679 BC, Duke Huan was appionted hegemon (ba).595 BC, The principle of 7 leap years of a 19-year cycle was established.579 BC, Jin-Chu Alliance536 BC, Penal Pot with Statutory law was Casted by Zi Chan of Zheng.498 BC, Confucius began a set of journeys around the principality states.494 BC, Battle between Wu and Yue.
The King of Yue, Goujian, surrendered to Wu.473 BC, The King of Yue, Gou Jian, eventually led his state to victory, annexing the rival, Wu.481 BC, the record of Spring and Autumn Annals ends.453 BC, Warring States period479 BC, Confucius died. The record of Zuo Zhuan (The Commentary of Zuo) ends.445 BC, Li Kui's Reform403 BC, Lie Wang of Zhou Dynasty acknowledged the status of principality states of Zhao, Wei and Han. The book "Zizhi Tongjian (Comprehensive Mirror in Aid of Governance)" began in this year.390 BC, Mozi died386 BC, the political geography of this era was dominated by the Seven Warring States, Qin, Chu, Qi, Yan, Han, Zhao, and Wei.359 BC, Shang Yang's Reform350 BC.
Te Hundred Schools of Thought period with academic prosperity.350 BC, the state of Qin moved its capital to Xianyang.349 BC, the state of Qin Implemented the policy of twenty (aristocratic) peerage ranks342 BC, Battle of Maling338 BC, The state of Qin Dismembermented Shang Yang.334 BC, The rulers of Wei and Qi declared their title as Kings.314 BC, domestic chaos of Yan. The army of Qi occupied Yan temporarily.307 BC, Zhao implemented the reforms consisting of "Wearing the Hu (styled) Attire and Shooting from Horseback (in battle)".304 BC, Mencius died290 BC, Zhuangzi died.288 BC, rulers of Qi and Qin were rendered as emperors on the east and on the west, but later the ruler of Qi abandoned his title as "emperor" and resisted the expansion of Qin with other states.287 BC, the states of Zhao, Wei, Han, Yan and Chu formed an alliance and attacked Qin. Qin ceded lands to Zhao and Wei.278 BC, Bai Qi, the general of Qin, conquered the capital of Chu, Ying.270 BC, Fan Ju suggested the King of Qin to befriend a distant state and strike a neighbouring one.260 BC, Battle of Changping256 BC.
The perish of the Zhou Dynasty249 BC, Lü Buwei, the chancellor(xiang) of Qin, led the army to overthrow the East Zhou regime.230-228 BC, Qin conquered Han and Zhao225-223 BC, Qin conquered Wei and Chu222 BC, Qin conquered Yan and Yue221 BC, Qin conquered Qi221 BC, Qin unified Central China221 BC, Qin DynastyFounder: Qin Shi Huang221 BC, Qin Shi Huang unified China economically by standardizing the Chinese units of measurements such as weights and measures, the currency.
And the length of the axles of carts to facilitate transport on the road system.220 BC, Qin Shi Huang started to develope an extensive network of roads.214 BC, Qin Shi Huang built Lingqu canal to connect Yangtze and the Pearl River Delta.214 BC, Qin Shi Huang started to build the Great Wall.213 BC, Qin Shi Huang burned books and buried scholars.210 BC, Qin Shi Huang died209 BC, domestic chaos began208 BC, Zhao Gao framed Li Si207 BC, Battle of Julu. The battle concluded with a decisive victory for the rebels led by Xiang Yu over the larger Qin army.206 BC, Liu Bang conquered capital area and replaced Qin Dynasty.202 BC.
After the engagement between Liu Bang and Xiang Yu (the Chu–Han Contention), Xiang Yu defeat at the Battle of Gaixia. He committed suicide at the bank of the Wu River.202 BC, Western Han (Former Han) DynastyFounder: Liu Bang193 BC, politician Xiao He died180 BC, Empress Lü died154 BC, the Rebellion of the Seven States140 BC, Wu Di of Han Dynasty officially endorsing Confucianism as the national philosophy.139 BC, Zhang Qian, a diplomat who served as an imperial envoy, travelled to the western regions (Nowadays Xinjiang and Central Asia) outside of China.127 BC, Wei Qing attacked Xiongnu.121 BC, Huo Qubing attacked Xiongnu.118 BC, poet Sima Xiangru died90 BC, Sima, Qian, the author of "Shi Ji (Records of the Grand Historian)", died60 BC, Protectorate of the Western Regions was established.AD 8, Xin DynastyFounder: Wang MangAD 10, Wang Mang, the new emperor of Xin, initiated several radical social and political reforms.AD 17, Lulin RebellionAD 18, Chimei (Red Eyebrows) RebellionAD 23, Battle of Kunyang.
This was the decisive battle that led to the fall of the Xin Dynasty.AD 25, Eastern Han (Later Han) DynastyFounder: Liu XiuAD 37, Eastern Han unified Central China againAD 40, Wu Zhu cash coins was resumedAD 67, Cai Yin brought Buddhist texts back to China.AD 69-70, Wang Jing harnessed the Yellow RiverAD 73, Ban Chao travelled to the western regions (Nowadays Xinjiang and Central Asia) after 65-year-isolation between Han and those regions.AD 92, historian Ban Gu diedAD 100, Xu Shen's "Shuowen Jiezi (Explaining Graphs and Analyzing Characters)"Circa AD 100, "Jiuzhang Suanshu (The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art)"AD 105, Cai Lun innovated the making of paper and the papermaking process, in forms recognizable in modern times as paper (as opposed to papyrus).AD 132, Zhang Heng invented the world's first seismoscope, which discerned the cardinal direction of an earthquake 500 km (310 mi) away.AD 166, Disasters of the Partisan ProhibitionsAD 190, End of the Han dynasty: Dong Zhuo dominated the imperial court and moved the capital to Chang'an (Nowadays Xi'an).AD 197, Yuan Shu declared the title of "emperor".AD 198, Cao Cao eliminated the power of Lü Bu.AD 199.
Yuan Shao eliminated the power of Gongsun ZanAD 200, Battle of Guandu. Cao Cao's decisive victory against Yuan Shao's numerically superior forces marked that Cao Cao became the dominant power in northern China.AD 207, Cao Cao unified Northern China.AD 208, Battle of Chibi (Red Cliffs). The allied victory at Red Cliffs ensured the survival of Liu Bei and Sun Quan.AD 208, the era of Three Kingdoms.AD 211, Liu Bei conquered Shu region.AD 219, general Guan Yu diedAD 220, Cao Cao diedAD 220, Wei dynastyFounder: Cao PiAD 221, Shu (Han) dynastyFounder: Liu BeiAD 229, Wu dynastyFounder: Sun QuanAD 222, Battle of Yiling (Xiaoting)AD 223, Liu Bei diedAD 226, Cao Pi diedAD 225, Meng Huo surrendered to Shu.AD 228, Zhuge Liang (Kongming) started to launch a total of five Northern Expeditions against Wei.AD 230, Zhong Yao diedAD 234, Zhuge Liang (Kongming) diedAD 240, Jiang Wei, the general of Shu, attacked Wei.AD 249, Sima Yi ousted Cao Shuang from power in a coup d'état and had him and his associates executed.AD 251, 255, and 257;
Three Rebellions in ShouchunAD 263, Sima Zhao sentenced Ji Kang, one of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove, to death.AD 263, Wei conquered Shu.AD 265, Western Jin DynastyFounder: Sima YanAD 279, Sima Yan, the emperor, ordered the army to attack WuAD 280, the ruler of Wu, Sun Hao, surrendered to Jin. Jin reunified Central China.AD 291, War of the Eight PrincesAD 297, historian Chen Shou diedAD 306, writer Zuo Si diedAD 311,Disaster of Yongjia. This was seen as the event that led to the fall of the unified Jin dynasty.AD 316, the perish of Western Jin DynastyAD 318, Eastern Jin DynastyFounder: Sima RuiAD 319 Former ZhaoAD 319 Later ZhaoAD 337 Former YanAD 338 Cheng HanAD 338 DaiAD 345 Former LiangAD 350, Fu Hong, the leader of Di people conquered Southern Shaanxi.
However, he was poisoned by the ruler of Later Zhao.AD 350 Ran WeiAD 351 Former QinAD 354-359, Heng Wen of Eastern Jin Dynasty launched several Northern Expeditions.AD 376, Fu Jian, the ruler of Former Qin, reunified Northern China.AD 366, Mogao Caves was builtAD 383, Battle of Feishui. Fu Jian of the Former Qin was decisively defeated by the numerically inferior army of Eastern Jin.AD 398 Northern Wei DynastyAD 420 Liu Song DynastyAD 420, Northern and Southern DynastiesAD 433, poet Xie Lingyun diedAD 450, because Cui Hao’s book of national history revealed the history of shame of the ancestors of the Northern Wei Dynasty’s Tuoba’s ancestors, he was killed by the Northern Wei emperor.At the end of Northern Wei Dynasty, "Qimin Yaoshu (Essential Techniques for the Welfare of the People)"AD 479 Southern Qi DynastyAD 502 Liang DynastyAD 485, Xiaowen Di of Northern Wei Dynasty implemented Equal-field system.AD 531, writer Xiao Tong diedAD 534, The Northern Wei Dynasty split into the Eastern Wei Dynasty and the Western Wei Dynasty.AD 548, Hou Jing RebellionAD 555, Later LiangAD 555, Chen DynastyAD 557, Northern Zhou DynastyAD 579, Yang Jian controlled the regime of Northern ZhouAD 581.
Sui DynastyFounder: Yang JianAD 589, Sui Dynasty conquered Chen Dynasty and reunified Central China.AD 610, Sui emperor built the Grand Canal.AD 614, Yang Di of Sui launched a total of three expeditions towards Goguryeo.AD 617, Li Yuan conquered Capital Region.AD 618, Tang DynastyFounder: Li YuanAD 626, Xuanwu Gate Incident. Li Shimin became the emperor of Tang Dynasty as Tai Zong.AD 627, Tai Zong's era, the "Reign of Zhenguan is considered a golden age in Chinese history.AD 655, Wu Zetian (Wu Zhao) married Emperor Gao Zong, officially becoming Gaozong's huanghou (empress consort).AD 640, Princess Wencheng married King Songtsen Gampo of the Tibetan Empire.AD 652, ”Qianjin yaofang“ as the earliest Chinese Clinical medicine encyclopedia.AD 664, empress Wu Zetian (Wu Zhao) killed the Prime minister (Zaixiang) and controlled the government just like his husband, the emperor.AD 690, (Wu) Zhou DynastyFounder: Wu Zetian (Wu Zhao)AD 693, Four Paragons of the Early TangAD 705, Tang Dynasty (Restoration)Founder:
Li XianAD 713, emperor Li Longji-Xuanzong's Kaiyuan era is usually viewed as one of the golden ages of Chinese history.AD 720, Sancai, a versatile type of decoration on Chinese pottery using glazes or slip, predominantly in the three colours of brown (or amber), green, and a creamy off-white.AD 753, monk Jianzhen (Ganjin) came to Japan and helped to propagate Buddhism in Japan.AD 755, Anshi Rebellion. The rebellion spanned the reigns of three Tang emperors before it was finally quashed, and involved a wide range of regional powers.AD 756, Maweiyi Incident, Yang Guozhong and Yang Guifei were killed by the emperor Li Longji.AD 760, artist Wu Daozi diedAD 762, poet Wang Wei diedAD 762, poet Li Bai diedAD 770, poet Du Fu diedAD 784, calligrapher Yan Zhenqing was killedAD 787, the relationship between Tang Dynasty and Tibetan Empire began to deteriorate.AD 781, Tibetan Empire conquered Western Regions (Nowadays Xinjiang).AD 793, Tea TaxationAD 806, Emperor Li Chun-Xian Zong appeared poised to reunite the empire, many parts of which had effectively been ruled independently by regional warlords.AD 819, writer Liu Zongyuan diedAD 835, Sweet Dew incident. The eunuchs had an even firmer control over Emperor and his government than beforeAD 841, Great Anti-Buddhist PersecutionAD 874, Late-Tang Warlord Era beganAD 907, Five Dynasties and Ten KingdomsAD 916, Khitan people built their own regimeAD 940.
"Huajian Ji", which had a great influence upon later ci.AD 947, Khitan changed its title to Liao DynastyAD 960, Northern Song DynastyFounder: Zhao KuangyiAD 961, Emperor Zhao Kuangyi-Taizu brought the power of the military under control and preventing anyone else rising to power as he did before.AD 970, Gunpowder was officially used as the production of weapons.AD 975, Li Yu, the leader of Southern Tang Dynasty surrendered to Song Dynasty.AD 986, Battle of Qigouguan between Song and Liao. General Yang Ye died.AD 1004, Chanyuan Treaty was signed between Song Dynasty and Liao Dynasty to end the war.AD 1043, Qingli ReformsAD 1069, Wang Anshi erved as chancellor who attempted major and controversial socioeconomic reforms known as the New Policies.AD 1084, "Zizhi Tongjian (Comprehensive Mirror in Aid of Governance)" was written.AD 1084, "Mengxi Bitan (Dream Pool Essays)"AD 1101-1125, "Qingming Shanghe Tu (Along the River During the Qingming Festival)"AD 1038.
Western Xia DynastyAD 1115, (Jurchen) Jin DynastyAD 1118, Alliance between Song Dynasty and Jin Dynasty to against Liao DynastyAD 1127, Jingkang incident. The forces of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty besieged and sacked the capital of Song dynasty. The Jin forces captured the Song rulers and officials of the Song imperial court.AD 1127, Southern Song DynastyFounder: Zhao GouAD 1130, Battle of HuangtiandangAD 1138, Southern Song Dynasty moved its capital to Lin'an (Nowadays Hangzhou).AD 1141, Shaoxing Treaty was signed between Song dynasty and Jin dynasty. Jin dynasty occupied the Northern China.AD 1142, general Yue Fei was killed.
AD 1155, poet Li Qingzhao diedAD 1175, an academic debate took place between Zhu Xi and Lu Brothers.AD 1210, Cí, a type of lyric poetry, employed in Song Dynasty.AD 1206, Genghis Khan founded Mongol Empire.AD 1234, the Mongols eliminated Jin Dynasty.AD 1271, Mongols changed the title to Yuan.AD 1275, Marco Polo reached Shangdu (Xanadu).AD 1278, politician Wen Tianxiang was captured by Mongols.AD 1279, Prime Minister (Chengxiang) Lu Xiufu and the last emperor of Song Dynasty jumped into the sea after being defeated by Mongol army.AD 1271, Yuan DynastyFounder: Kublai KhanAD 1247, 1281, Kublai Khan attacked Japan twice but failed.AD 1280, Leader of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism, Drogön Chögyal Phagpa, diedAD 1280, Shoushi Li (Season-Granting Timing System) was implemented. It defines a tropical/solar year as 365.2425 days.Late-13th century, Huang Daopo spreaded Cotton textile technique in Yangtze River Delta.AD 1300, playwright Guan Hanqing diedAD 1313.
"Nong Shu (Book of Agriculture)"AD 1332, Huochong (Hand Cannons) made at that time is the earliest hand cannons ever discovered nowadays.AD 1333, philosopher Wu Cheng diedMid-14th Century, "Tianjia Wuxing" was written as the first chinese agricultural-weather book.AD 1351, Hongjin (Red Turban) RebellionAD 1355, Zhu Yuanzhang joined the rebellion and became stronger.AD 1368, Ming DynastyFounder: Zhu YuanzhangAD 1380, Chancellor Hu Weiyong arrogated all authority to himself and Zhu Yuanzhang executed Hu Weiyong. The emperor soon abolished the Chancellery of China.AD 1405, Zheng He began to command expeditionary treasure voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, Western Asia, and East Africa until 1433.AD 1407, "Yongle Dadian (Yongle Encyclopedia)"AD 1420, Ming emperor moved the capital to BeijingAD 1449, Tumu Crisis was a frontier conflict between Mongols and the Ming dynasty which led to the capture of the Emperor of Ming and the defeat.AD 1529, philosopher Wang Yangming diedAD 1563, general Qi Jiguang eliminated the threat of Japanese and local pirates on the Southeastern coastline.AD 1579, Zhang Juzheng's ReformAD 1596 "Bencao Gangmu (Learn moreCompendium of Materia Medica)"Early 17th Century, Tea was exported to Europe.AD 1601, Matteo Ricci, an Italian Jesuit priest, arrived Beijing for Missionary.AD 1602, philosopher Li Zhi suicided.AD 1610.
"Jin Ping Mei (The Plum in the Golden Vase)"AD 1615, Aisin Gioro Nurhaci implemented Eight Manchu Banners Policy.AD 1618, Nurhaci commissioned a document entitled the Seven Grievances in which he enumerated seven problems with Ming rule and began to rebel against the domination of the Ming dynasty.AD 1621, Feng Menglong's three stories began to be printed.AD 1628, Ling Mengchu's Two Slaps began to be printed.AD 1623, Wei Zhongxian was appionted to be the chief of Eastern Depot of Ming Dynasty.AD 1630, Li Zicheng and Zhang Xianzhong RebellionAD 1636, Hong Taiji changed his title to the "emperor" and founded the Qing Dynasty.
AD 1637, "Tiangong Kaiwu (The Exploitation of the Works of Nature)"AD 1644, Li Zicheng changed his title to the "emperor" and occupied Beijing.AD 1636, Qing DynastyFounder: Hong TaijiAD 1644, Qing occupied BeijingAD 1661, Zheng Chenggong (Koxinga) defeated the Dutch invaders on Taiwan.AD 1673, Revolt of the Three FeudatoriesAD 1682, philosopher Gu Yanwu diedAD 1688, "Chang Sheng Dian (The Palace of Eternal Life)"AD 1709, Yuanming Yuan (Old Summer Palace) was builtAD 1723, Yongzheng emperor devised a system for his successors to choose their heirs in secret.AD 1726, Gaitu Guiliu (the process of replacing tusi with state-appointed officials, the transition from jurisdictional sovereignty to territorial sovereignty, and the start of formal empire rather than informal on southwestern China) was implemented.AD 1763, writer Cao Xueqin diedAD 1769, Qianlong Emperor is particularly notorious for the use of literary inquisitions.
AD 1782, "Siku Quanshu (complete books of the four [imperial] repositories)"AD 1790, 'Four Great Anhui Troupes' brought Hui opera, or what is now called Huiju, in 1790 to Beijing. It is the origin of Beijing opera.AD 1839, Destruction of opium at Humen by Lin Zexu.AD 1840, First Opium WarAD 1842, "Haiguo Tuzhi (Illustrated Treatise on the Maritime Kingdoms)"AD 1842, Treaty of Nanking (Nanjing). It includes the cession of Hong Kong.AD 1851, Taiping RebellionAD 1856, Second Opium WarAD 1858, Treaty of Tientsin (Tianjin)AD 1860, The burning of the Imperial Palace (Yuanming Yuan-Old Summer Palace)AD 1860, Treaty of Peking (Beijing)AD 1861, Empress Dowager Cixi began to control the courtAD 1864, The fall of Nanking in 1864 marked the destruction of the Taiping regime.AD 1876, general Zuo Zongtang recaptured Xinjiang Province from rebel forces.AD 1894, First Sino-Japanese WarAD 1895, Defeat of the Beiyang fleet and the Treaty of Shimonoseki.AD 1897, Imperial Bank of China was founded.
AD 1898, "Tianyan lun (On Evolution)"AD 1898, Wuxu Reform (Hundred Days' Reform)AD 1898, The Hundred Days' Reform ended with the rescinding of the new edicts and the execution of six of the reform's chief advocates, together known as the "Six Gentlemen".AD 1900, Boxer RebellionAD 1901, After eight countries' intervention, Xinchou treaty was signed.AD 1905, The Tongmenghui (Chinese United League) was a secret society and underground resistance movement founded by Sun Yat-senAD 1909, Jingzhang Railway was designed and built by Zhan Tianyou.AD 1911, Xinhai RevolutionAD 1912, Sun Yat-sen took the oath as Provisional President of the Republic of China.AD 1912, The last emperor, Puyi (Xuantong) resigned. The perish of Qing Dynasty.How young we are Five thousand years
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