Throughout the history of human civilization, information transmission has always been a key driver of the progress of the times, from the earliest anthropomorphic gestures to the escalation of beacon fire and wolf smoke, to the watchtower in Chang'an City... And the most exciting thing is undoubtedly the addition of electromagnetic waves, by which the development of wireless communication technology allows us to get across the communication gap and be able to carry out a dialogue with another city, another piece of the interior or even another starry sky.
Through the difference of speed to complete the separation, with low energy consumption, no solvent evaporation, small footprint, amplification effect is not significant, applicable to a variety of solution scale and other advantages, wide application prospects.
Later, China took the lead
In the 1980s, the first generation oflpwa solutions cellular mobile communication system (1G) was introduced, then about every decade, mobile communication technology will be updated, from 2G to 3G, and then 4G, each technological innovation has added significant changes to everyone's habits, and people may never imagine that they can live so close to a device, and now, the arrival of 5G may bring how surprising Now, how might the arrival of 5G bring surprises?
On June 6, 2019, China's Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) issued 5G commercial license plates to China Mobile, China Unicom, China Telecom and its Chinese broadcaster to support the commercialization of 5G, and by the end of 2019, a total of 34 countries and regions around the world had released 5G commercial services, followed by the announcement of the opening of 5G networks by several operators in various countries, and 5G officially started to enter the commercialization phase. Before this, China's Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Development and Reform Commission and other departments, together with Huawei, ZTE and other companies have already started to layout 5G industry investment and technology research and development, and achieved some innovative results, China also got rid of the image of "lagging behind" in previous generations of communication technology, and completed the rapid catch-up of mobile communication and obtained China has also shed its image as a "laggard" in previous generations of communication technologies, and has completed a rapid catch-up in mobile communications and gained "stage leadership".
According to the "White Paper on China's 5G Development and Economic and Social Impact" published by the China Academy of Information and Communication Technology, as of September 2021, the number of 5G terminal connections in China has exceeded 430 million, and the customer penetration rate has exceeded 27%. In addition, of the 47,000 5G specification-essential patent families currently affirmed worldwide, China affirms 18,000 patent families, accounting for nearly 40% of the global total, ranking first in the world.
What is the fast method of 5G?
For the general public, the most intuitive experience of 5G compared to 4G is perhaps the fact that the network speed seems to have become much faster.
As the network under the 5G specification can reach a peak speed of 10GB/s uplink speed, 20GB/s downlink speed, keep in mind that under the 4G network, the theoretical peak transmission speed is only up 50Mbps, down 100Mbps, but to achieve such a strong speed, what is the "cost"?
The famous Shannon's theorem tells us that the channel information transmission speed limit is determined by the channel frequency bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio 2 elements, so to improve the speed of data transmission in network communications (i.e., network speed), to be able to improve the bandwidth, but also to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, and the previous generations of mobile communications updates are mainly around the bandwidth to carry out the construction of the 5G network is also the same.
To increase the frequency bandwidth, naturally, the more frequencies available, the better, but the frequency is a rigid demand, not only mobile communications must frequency, television broadcasting, aviation, railroads, roads, etc., especially the coverage capacity of the more limited low-frequency resources, has long been scraping the end, so the industry will target on high-frequency. High-frequency not only has a wealth of band resources, but also to meet the bandwidth requirements of large traffic transmission, therefore, the use of 5G frequency has long been on the probe than 2, 3, 4G are strong 3 ~ 6Ghz wireless band.
With a higher frequency, the bandwidth has naturally become larger, the amount of information that can be transmitted is also more, if the previous 4G is a country road, then 5G is equivalent to the highway, both the rate and volume have been qualitatively changed.
In addition to increasing the frequency, another focus of research and development of 5G networks is to improve the efficiency of the use of frequency. As we all know, the frequency of high-frequency resources is very high, the corresponding wavelength is short, so 5G base stations in the antenna design can be done to reduce the spacing between the antenna array, and then produce a scale antenna array, in the use of this type of array of mobile network system, the signal can be carried out in the horizontal and vertical orientation of dynamic adjustment, the integration of beam fusion technology, can make the signal more accurately pointed to specific customer equipment, for example For example, if a 4G base station has the resources to transmit 10 signals at the same frequency, a 5G base station can transmit 30 signals at the same time, significantly improving band efficiency.
Related Hot Topic
Is LoRaWAN a two-way system?
Data flow over LoRaWAN can be unidirectional or bidirectional and is segmented into several frequency channels and speeds. The amount of data being transferred and the distance between the sensor and the main network server determine the data transfer speed. In LoRaWAN networks, the typical data transfer rate is between 0.3 and 50 Kbps.
Does LoRaWAN have a price?
Generally speaking, LoRaWAN modules cost $8 to $10, which is less than the cost of cellular LTE modules like NB-IoT.
How does LoRa function?
In order for LoRa to function, an RF tone is moved relatively linearly across time. The newest data is at the top and is referred to as an up chirp in this graph, which displays the chirps in a reverse cascade. You can observe how the tone's frequency has risen over time.
Why is LoRa useful?
The radio layer that permits long-distance communication is called LoRa. For IoT networks, LoRaWAN serves as both the system architecture and the communication protocol. The ideal option for linked cities is the LoRa/LoRaWAN technology stack due to its extensive signal range and low power needs.